AN ANALYSIS ON SECOND YEAR STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN WRITING PROCEDURE TEXT AT SMAN 1
REVIEW THESIS RESEARCH
That Written By:
TEGA KURNIAWAN, S. Pd | 2011
Graduated S.1 Degree from English Department of Bung Hatta University
Submitted to fulfill and completing final assignment of Research in Language Teaching
In English Department of Bung Hatta University, with Dr. Lely Refnita, M. Pd.
THE FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
BUNG HATTA UNIVERSITY
I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
In this chapter, the reviewer discussed the introduction of the thesis written by Tega Kurniawan who graduated from English Department, Faculty of the teacher training and education Bung Hatta University 2011. He picks the title in his thesis is “An Analysis on Second Year Students’ Ability in Writing Procedure Text at SMA N 1 Kecamatan Suliki”. It covered the background of the problem, the identification of the problem, Research Question, Purposes of the Study, and Signification of the study.
1. Background of the Problem
English, as an international language, has developed rapidly. In Indonesia, it has been taught as one of the compulsory subjects from the first year of Junior High School until university level, even in some areas, it is introduced from kindergarten. Besides, English is not only a compulsory subject at Senior High School, but it is also one of the subjects examined in National Examination.
To master English as a foreign language, there are four skills that should be acquired by the students. They are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These skills are related each other and cannot be separated.
As a skill in English, writing has become an indispensible skill for future life because it is required in various aspects such as science, technology, and others. Writing is one of important ways to improve someone’s general language skills in English. Writing practice can help the students to improve their vocabulary and of course increase their ability in grammar. In other word, writing is useful in many purposes.
In learning writing, there are many types of text that must be mastered; they are narrative, descriptive, spoof, anecdote, argumentative, procedure text and so on. All of them have been taught since Junior High School and based on Senior High Schools’ curriculum; all of the text should be learned from the first year students until third year students. Procedure text is almost used in daily activity, but sometime we are not aware about that. Procedure text is useful for the students to master because it will be used in daily life or activities. For instance, in making or doing something, we need the procedure about that. There are two parts of procedure text that will be discussed; the first one is generic structure that content goal, materials, and steps. Second, language features that content simple present tense, action verb, imperative sentence, and temporal conjunction.
Based on the informal interview with the English teacher at SMA N 1 SULIKI, they told that the ability of the students at SMA N 1 SULIKI in writing procedure text was still low. They were confused and still had mistaken especially in using language features, for example in using “be” and “verb” in simple present tense, in using temporal conjunction, action verb, and imperative sentence.
Based on the background above and because the procedure text is very important for us especially for the students, the writer was interested in doing the research about two aspects of procedure text; generic structure and language feature entitled An Analysis on the Students’ Ability in Writing Procedure Text of Second Year Students at SMA N 1 SULIKI.
2. Identification of the Problem
As it has been introduced previously, there are four main English skills that must be mastered by the students; they are listening, speaking reading and writing. The most important one is writing. Writing is not easy. It needs practice to develop this skill. Oshima and Hogue (i991: 3) state that there are four main stages in writing process: prewriting, planning, writing, and revising draft.
According to Byrne in Roza( 2007), there are five components of writing that must be considered and understood by the students in writing text. They are the organization of the idea, grammar, vocabulary, mechanics (punctuation, spelling, and capitalization), and content.
Procedure text is the text that is designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of steps or actions. Sudarwati and Grace (2007:88) state that, there are two aspects of the procedure text that must be considered by the learners. The first one is generic structure that comprises goal/aim (or title), materials (not required for all procedure text), and steps (the action that must be taken). The second is language features of procedure text. It deals with the use of simple present tense, imperative sentences, action verb, and temporal conjunction.
Procedure text explains how people perform different processes in a sequence of steps. This text uses simple present tense, often imperative sentences. It also uses the temporal conjunction such as first, second, then, next, finally, etc. (Wikipedia: 2010).
3. Research Questions
Relating to the explanations of the problem above, the writer formulated the research questions of this research as follows:
a) How is the ability of the second year students of SMA N 1 SULIKI to organize the ideas in writing the procedure text?
b) How is the ability of the second year students of SMA N 1 SULIKI in choosing and using the appropriate vocabulary in writing the procedures text?
c) How is the ability of second year students of SMA N 1 SULIKI in applying the language feature in writing the procedure text?
4. Purpose of the Study
In purposes of the study the writer made general aim and objective of this study was to describe the second year students’ ability in writing procedure text at SMA N 1 SULIKI. The specific purposes were as follows:
a) To describe the ability of second year students of SMA N 1 SULIKI in organizing the ideas in writing the procedure text.
b) To describe the ability of second year students of SMA N 1 SULIKI in using the appropriate vocabulary in writing the procedure text.
c) To describe the ability of second year students of SMA N 1 SULIKI in applying language feature in writing the procedure text.
5. Significance of the Study
In the significance of the study the writer made the result of this research, was expected to be useful for teacher and students. This study was useful for the teachers. They will know the students’ ability in writing, especially in writing procedure text. After they know the ability of their student, they can consider it to make future planning of teaching procedure text. Besides, it is really important and helpful for the students. By having known their ability, they can increase their ability to write procedure text. At least, this research was also useful for the writer to do the research in the future.
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, the reviewer discussed some aspects dealing with writing procedure text, that made by the writer of this thesis. First, the concept of writing was discussed in 1st point. Next, the discussion was focused on the component of writing in 2nd. In 3th, the writer discussed the criteria of good writing and the concept of procedure text was discussed in 4th, the example of procedure text was presented in 5th points.
1. Concept of Writing
The are kinds of several concept of writing that quoted by other expert of the writing major skill of English. Writing is one of the most important skills in learning language beside listening, speaking, and reading. It is also more difficult than others. Ghait (2002) states that writing is a complex process that allows writer to explore thoughts and ideas, and make them visible and concrete.
Writing is the expression of language in the form of letters, symbols, or words. The primary purpose of writing is communication. People have used many tools for writing including paint, pencils, pens, typewriters, and computers. The writing can be formed on the wall of a cave, a piece of paper, or a computer screen. It is supported by Brainy Media.com (2007) that writing is the art or act of forming letters and characters on paper, wood, stone, or other material, for the purpose of recording the ideas which characters and word express, or of communicating them to others by visible sign. The writing process includes prewriting, composing, revising, editing, and publishing. There are many kinds of writing such as expository, narrative, descriptive, imaginative, and persuasive. Literature is a type of writing that includes poetry, novels, plays, and short stories.
Because writing is the written form of communication, the writer must consider many aspects, such as grammar, vocabulary, mechanics, and others. The writer has to use the appropriate grammar in writing to make the audience easy to understand her or his writing. Not only grammar, using the appropriate vocabulary and spellings the words are also important in writing.
Some researchers point out the nature of writing in various definitions. Oshima and Houge (1991:8) state that writing is skill that people have in all of aspects of life, and the writer must perform it in daily life. Based on this definition, we know that writing is really important. Writing will be used in all of aspects of life, and the specific one is that writing is used in communication.
Wikipedia (2009) states that writing is an act of one who writes. They add that writing means to form (letter, words, or symbol) on a surface such as paper with an instrument such as pen. Oshima and Houge (2007: 15) state that writing is never a one step action, it is an ongoing creative act.
Harmer (2001: 257) states that in the teaching writing, we can focus on the product of that writing or the writing process itself. That means, the process refers to the act of gathering the ideas and working with them until they presented in manner that is polished and comprehensible to readers. allwork.com (2003) asserts that writing is to mark or produce (letter, symbol, numbers, sentences, etc) on surface, especially paper, usually using a pen or pencil.
Based on discussion above we can say that writing is really important skill that must be mastered by the students. According to Chaedar in Rahmawirda (2009:6) the language skill often wanted by our students from Elementary School is writing. That means, writing should be mastered by the young learners in order to make them more understand about writing in the future.
Based on that, we can get the conclusion that writing is the language skill of using signs, letters, word or symbol, pen or etc. That is the bridge that connects between the power of brain and the skill of writing. That means that when we have the idea about something, we can show it in written form, in order to give the information to someone about something clearly.
2. Component of Writing Process
According to Byrne in Roza (2011) there are five components that should be considered in writing:
- Organizing idea
Ideas are the most important factors in writing, because nobody can write meaningfully, if he/she has not anything in mind yet. In composition class, topic is often given in order to help students concentrate in a certain set of ideas to be explained.
The grammar of language is a description of way that the language behaves. Without having knowledge of grammar the writer cannot make his/her language communicative to a great variety of reader from different situation.
Vocabulary is important in writing because by having many vocabularies, a writer can make readers explore more deeply in what he/she is telling about. Good vocabulary which is known as idiom gives literary or cultural values to any composition.
Punctuation plays as an important role in helping reader to establish intonation. In other word, punctuation is a command for the reader to raise his/her voice or drop his/her speech and because he/she is going to stop. Punctuation can also help readers to understand the state of mind of the writer.
Content is how the writer develop his/her idea related with the topic that he or she wants to discuss.
Some of scientists may disagree with this, but as a matter-of-fact, writing is an art. It is supported by Wikipedia (2008), that writing is an art or act of tracing or inscribing letter on surface. Writing involves creative thinking and an effective expression of one’s thoughts. The writing process is composed of different components that are essential for good writing. Based on the expert’s idea above, a simple conclusion can be drawn that there are many components of writing, depend on context and the type of text that we will write.
3. Criteria of Good Writing
There are many elements or aspects in making the good writing. Some scientists say that the most important elements are unity and coherence. Oshima (1981:17) states that paragraph is unity if it discusses one main idea. That means that when we write, each paragraph must have one idea. That can make our paragraph effective. In short, we can conclude that in writing a paragraph the writer must discuss one topic with one main idea.
Oshima (1981: 17) also states that coherence means that a paragraph is easy to read and understand if the supporting sentences are in logical order and the idea is connected by the use of appropriate transition signals. In order to have coherence in writing, the movement from one sentence to next sentence or in longer essay, from one paragraph to the text must be logic and smooth.
Chen in Nunan (1999: 297) states that the judgment of writing as good or weak is based on straightforward criteria: clarity, accuracy, detail, structure.
4. Concept of Procedure Text
Procedure text is the text that is designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of actions and steps. It explains how people perform different processes in a sequence of steps. This text uses simple present tense, often imperative sentences. It also uses the temporal conjunction such as first, and second. (http;//readingforseniorhighschool.blogspot.com/2011/5/procedure.html).
Reading online (2006) asserts that procedure is written to describe how something is done through a series of sequenced steps. It is supported by Derewienka (1990), he states that procedural text makes us to know how something is done through sequences of steps or actions. Sudarwati and Grace (2007:88, state that procedure text describe how something is done through the science of order or step.
Procedure text is really important for the students to study, because it is really useful for us in daily activities. For example if we make something, we need the procedure about that, we do based on the correct procedure text of course the result of our activity better.
There are two parts of the procedure text that must be considered by the learners. The first one is generic structure of the procedure text. The generic structures of procedure text are:
1. Goal/aim (or title)
2. Materials (not required for all procedural texts)
3. Steps (the actions that must be taken)
The second is language features as follows:
- Using simple present tense
- Using imperative sentences
- Using temporal conjunction
- Using action verb
In conclusion, the procedure is a text that is designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of actions or steps. That means the procedure text explains about how to make or produce something, complete with the steps or the correct ways.
5. Example of Procedure Text
Based on the explanation above, the writer brings up an example of procedure text as follows:
Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Here are the steps. Firstly, dry a handful seeding under the sunlight. Secondly, put the seeding on the soil. It should be in an open area. Next, wait it. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger.
Finally, put it in another big pot. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon.
Analyzing the Text
Generic Structure Analysis
a) Goal; informing on how to plant chilies.
b) Material: seed, big pot
c) Steps; showing the steps or method in planting chilies; from drying seed to put the sprout in big pot.
Language Feature Analysis
a) Imperative sentences; dry a handful seeding, put it, etc
b) Action verb; put, dry, etc
c) Temporal conjunction; next, finally, firstly, secondly
d) Simple present tense pattern; planting is a nice activity, the following is a guided information
I. RESEARCH METHOD
In this chapter, the reviewer discussed the research method that made by the writer, including research design, population and sample, instrumentation, technique of collecting data, and technique of analyzing data.
1. Research Design
This research used descriptive design. It described the ability of students in writing the procedure text. Gay (1987: 10) states that descriptive research involves collecting data in order to test hypothesis or answer question concerning the current status of the subject of the study. In addition, Gay (1987: 189) says that descriptive research is useful in investigating many kinds of educational problem.
Based on definition above, we can conclude that descriptive research is used to measure or describe the problem in the field in order to get fact or real information or real condition. So, the writer used this descriptive design to know the student’s ability in writing procedure text.
1. Population and Sample
According to Gay (1987: 102), population is the group to which the writer would like the result of the study to be generalized. The population of this study was the second year students of SMA N 1 SULIKI. The total members of population were 303 students. The writer chose this population to be investigated because they have learned the procedure text.
Because the members of population were large, the writer took sample. According to Gay (1987: 103), sampling is the process of selecting a number of individuals for a study in such a way that the individuals represent the larger group from which they were selected.
The writer used Cluster Random Sampling to select the sample. Cluster random sampling is a sampling technique in which the sample in group is randomly selected, and all members of selected group have similar characteristics. Students of IPA (exact science) and IPS (Social science) have similar syllabus, they study the same materials, and they have the same time allocation. The writer took 12 % of the populations as the sample. That means, the number of sample of this research was about 36 students.
To select the sample the writer wrote the name of classes on a small piece of paper, and then he put them into a box. After shaking it, he took out one piece of paper from the box. The selected class was IS 3 (social science III). It means IS 3 class was as the sample.
1. Kind of the Instruments
In this research, the writer used the test instrument, writing test exactly to collecting the data. The test was used to know the students’ ability in writing procedure text dealing with organization of the ideas, choosing the appropriate vocabulary, and language features.
There were three topics that have to be chosen and developed by the students:
- How to make a cup of coffee
- How to make a kite
- How to make a scramble egg
- Choose your own topics
The writer asked the students to write the procedure text in 60 minutes. The writer did try out before giving the real test. The functions of try out were to see whether the time allocation was enough or not, and to see whether the students understand the instruction or not. To determine the validity of the test, the writer analyzed content validity. A good test must be valid and reliable. Arikunto (1993: 67) states that one of the type validity is content validity. That means that the writer constructed the test based on the curriculum, syllabus and teaching materials.
To minimize subjectivity, the writer employed two scorers (The writer and his friend, Hengki Nora) to analyze the students writing test. To analyze consistency of two scorers, it was analyzed by Using Product Moment Formula:
= The coefficient correlation between variable X and Y
N = the number of the students
= the score from first scorer
= the score from second scorer
To find out the total of degree of correlation, it was analyzed by using Spearman Brown Formula, as follows:
Where: r xy = the reliability coefficient for the total test
The writer used the degree of coefficient correlation based on Arikunto’s idea (2009: 75)
0.80 – 1.00 : Very high
0.60 – 0.70 : High
0.40 – 0.50 : Enough
0.20 – 0.30 : Low
0.00 – 0, 10 : Very low
The result of the try out showed that the reliability index of the test was 0, 98. It means that, the test was reliable. (See appendix 3)
IV. DATA ANALYSIS
1. Technique of Collecting Data
As already discussed before, the writer used writing test to collect the data. The data of this research were students’ score on writing. The writer followed the next steps to collect the data.
- The writer copied the entire students’ answer sheet. The original one was for the first scorer and the other one was for the second scorer.
- The writer gave criteria for giving score to the second scorer.
- The first and second scorer read the answer sheet.
- The first and second scorer gave scores based the following criteria
Table 3.1: The Criteria in Giving Score
|No||Aspects||Criteria of each item||Score|
|1||Organization of ideas||
– Goal is clear and matches with the topic
– Material matches with the topic
– steps is clear and matches with the topic
– Goal is not clear enough and loose
– material is not clear
– step is not clear not matches
– Goal is disconnected
– material is disconnected
– steps is worst and disconnected
|30 – 20|
19 – 10
9 – 22Choice of word
- Excellent to very good: effective word and using appropriate vocabulary
- Good to average: occasional errors of word, choosing words, usage but meaning obscured
- Fair to poor: frequents errors of word, choice
30 – 20
19 – 10
9 – 2
- Excellent to very good: effective in using simple present, imperative, action verb, temporal conjunction, and punctuation.
- Good to average: effective but the construction is simple and there are simple mistakes
- Fair to poor: there are major problems in simple or complex form in using simple present, temporal conjunction, action verb, imperative sentence
30 – 20
19 – 10
9 – 2
(modified based on Heatons’ idea,1988)
2. Technique of Analyzing Data
Data of this research were students ‘score of writing test. The writer analyzed the data as the following steps:
- Present the raw score from two scorers
- Count the average score of two scorers by using the formula;
Score 1 + score 2
- Calculate the Mean ( M) and Standard Deviation (SD)
M = Mean
= Sum of all the scores
= The square of the sum; add up all the score and square the, or total sum
= The sum of all the squares: square each score and add up the entire sum
N = Number of student
- Classify the students’ ability into high, moderate, and low ability using the following categories
>M + 1 SD = High
M-1 SD => M + 1SD = Moderate
<M – 1SD =low
- Calculate the number and the percentage of the students who get high, moderate, and low ability, by using the follow the formula:
P = R/T x 100%
P = Percentage of the students score
R = the sum of the students who get high, moderate, low
T = the sum of the students
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
In this chapter, the reviewer have drew some conclusions and suggestion about this research that made by the writer, based on the findings that has been discussed previously.
Based on the result of data analysis, the writer concluded that the ability of second year students at SMA N 1 SULIKI in writing procedure text was moderate. It is supported by the result of the data analysis that there were 18 students (50%) who got moderate ability.
- The ability of second year students at SMA N 1 SULIKI in organizing the ideas was moderate, It is supported by the fact that there were 26 students (72, 22%) got moderate ability, 6 students (16, 67%) got high ability, and there were only 4 students (11, 11%) got low ability.
- The ability of second year students at SMA N SULIKI in choosing the words was moderate. It is supported by the fact that, there were 22 students (61, 11%) got moderate ability, 6 students (16, 67%) got high ability, and there were only 8 students (22, 22%) got low ability.
- The ability of second year students at SMA N SULIKI in applying language features was moderate., It is supported by the fact that there were 21 students (58, 33%) got moderate ability, 4 students (11, 11%) got high ability, and there were only 11 students (30, 56%) got low ability.
So, the reviewer can make concluded about this thesis research related clearly explanation above, that written by Tega Kurniawan, S. Pd | 2011 :
This research was aimed to describe the ability of second year students of SMA N 1 Suliki in writing procedure text. The design of this research was descriptive. The number of members of population of this research was 303. The writer used cluster random sampling in taking the sample. The writer took 12 % of the population as the sample, and there were 36 students as the sample.
In collecting the data, the writer used writing test. In this test, the students were asked to choose the provided topics or using their own topics. Before the writer did the real test, he had tried out it to see the reliability. The result of the try out showed that the reliability of the test was 0, 98. It means that, the test was reliable. In analyzing the data based on the result of writing test, the writer presented the raw score in table of frequency distribution, and then calculated the students’ score, classified the students who got high, moderate, or low ability, and finally, counted the percentage of the member of students according to their ability..
Generally, the result of this research showed that the ability of the second year students of SMA 1 in writing procedure text was moderate, it was indicated by the fact that 18 students (50%) got moderate ability. There were 26 students (72,22%) who got moderate ability in organizing the ideas, 22 students (61,11%) got moderate ability in using appropriate words, and 21 students (58,33%) got moderate ability in using language features.
Based on the result above, a simple conclusion could be drawn that the students’ ability to write procedure text was moderate. Relating to this conclusion, the writer suggests to both English teacher and the students. Since the results was moderate, the writer hopes the teachers gives students more knowledge, explanation, and exercises in order to help them in improving their ability in writing procedure text. The students should posses enough knowledge on components of procedure text, and do more exercises to write the procedure text.
Based on the conclusions above, the reviewer proposed some suggestions related by the writer as follows:
- The teachers should give more explanations and exercises to write procedure text to the students in order to increase their understanding about procedure text, and also to improve their ability in writing.
- The students should learn the components of procedure text and do more practices in writing procedure text.
- The writer suggests doing the research on procedure text from different aspects such as: the research about the difficulty or the problem face that was found by the students in writing procedure text.
Finally, Suggestion for this research from the reviewer that can hopefully be learn by readers and other researchers, would made and more clearly and detail to explain about “appropriate vocabulary in writing the procedures text” and “the language feature in writing the procedure text”, that written on the research question in the first chapter of this thesis by the writer. Apology for the readers and the writer of this thesis research, if the reviewer has made mistakes in the review of this thesis. For next time we will be better and have to learn by the mistakes to approved the best in the future.