There are several articles which submit to fulfil assignment of Trend in ELT 2013 Session II (8 May 2013)
English Department and Faculty of teacher Training and Education
Bung Hatta University Padang
Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2006
My four-year residency at the University of Maryland has made me realize
that one would never be able to reach the end point of the Ph.D program without
getting tremendous help, support and encouragement from so many individuals. I was
truly blessed indeed to have such a wonderful circle of support. Now it is time for me
to express my deepest appreciation to all of those who helped me, although saying
“thank you” would be never enough.
First, my most sincere gratitude goes to Dr. Rebecca Oxford, my chair and
advisor, who has watched me grow professionally and intellectually from the very
first day of my doctoral program. Without her continued support and guidance,
nothing would have been possible.
I would also like to give my deepest thanks to all my committee members, Dr.
Margaret Ann Kassen for sharing her expertise in foreign language teaching through
technology and introducing Horizon Wimba, Dr. Roberta Lavine for offering
insightful comments on my proposal and introducing “task-based language teaching”
to me, Dr. Joseph McCaleb for graciously accepting my last-minute invitation, and Dr.
Denis Sullivan for encouraging me for the past two years.
I am infinitely grateful to Yaru Meng for all her support, generosity, and
friendship. Thank you so much for entering my life in the nick of time, Yaru!
I can’t thank enough the seven teachers, Chengbing Cheng, Yajun Zhao,
Jiaguang Pang, Xiaoyan Li, Xiaoying Zhao, Xiaoqian Yan, and Dongmei Ge, for
their generous and immediate help. I owe them many thanks. I also thank Lingmin
(Cathy) Gong for her highly efficient assistance. Finally,no one deserves more thanks
than 591 students participating in this study. I was so impressed by their brilliant
I would say a big “thank you” to three women who extended their helping
hands to me while I was suffering for this dissertation, Heather Gorman for her
editing work, Ru Lu for her statistical consulting, and Pamela Hickey for editing
dissertation and shouting “Hi” from Macedonia.
I thank Donna Bain-Butler, Gloria Park, Soo Jung Suh, Chengbin Yin, and
Ying Zhang for always cheering me up, and all EDCI 798 members for the fall
semester, 2005 for the charm bracelet that I will keep forever!
Finally, I am eternally indebted to my parents for sending their wholehearted
support all these years from a distance. Also, I wish to thank my grandparents, who
place great value on scholarship, for always being proud of me.
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This Working Paper brings together evidence on the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on education and training in Europe. It reviews 20 studies and/or reports that provide empirical accounts of the significance of ICT for learning (education and training). It has been prepared by IPTS (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies),1 on the request of DG Education and Culture, Directorate A (Lifelong Learning: horizontal Lisbon policy issues and international affairs), in particular Unit A2 (Lifelong learning: innovation and creativity) to support its work on the use of ICT to support innovation and lifelong learning for all.
This work is part of an on-going collaboration between IPTS and DG EAC Directorate A that started at the end of 2005. Under this collaboration, IPTS will contribute to the strategic policy work of DG EAC, by conducting focused techno-economic research and prospective analyses in domains relevant to Directorate A.
Work on the future of learning and the role of ICT is being carried out by the IS Unit at IPTS as part of a research action on eApplications. This action supports the formulation of policies for the development of the Information Society in the areas of governance, health, business, learning and social inclusion. The work links the monitoring and forecasting of ICT developments with socio-economic impact analysis of selected application areas, identifies relevant bottlenecks and suggests policy options for ICT. The aim is to support the overall formulation and implementation of appropriate Information Society policies contributing to a socially inclusive and sustainable society – one of the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy.
It is difficult and maybe even impossible to imagine future learning environments that are not supported, in one way or another, by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). When looking at the current widespread diffusion and use of ICT in modern societies, especially by the young – the so-called digital generation – then it should be clear that ICT will affect the complete learning process today and in the future. Both the Member States and the European Union have dedicated effort and resources to the promotion and implementation of ICT in education and training; and they continue to do so (e.g. the EU eLearning Programme2). It has also been acknowledged by the European Council held in Lisbon on 23 and 24 March 2000 that there is an urgent need to adapt European education and training systems according to the requirements of a knowledge-based society.
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RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
Satuan Pendidikan : SMA 9 Padang
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas / Semester : XI / II
Program / Jurursan : IPA / IPS
Jumlah Pertemuan : 1 x Pertemuan
Memahami makna dalam teks fungsional pendek dan monolog berbentuk spoof dalam konteks kehidupan sehari – hari.
Merespon makna dalam teks monolog yang menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari – hari dalam teks berbentuk spoof.
Successful learners have the essential skills in literacy and numeracy and are creative and productive users of technology, especially ICT, as a foundation for success in all learning areas.
The preamble to the 2008 Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians (MCEETYA, 2008) acknowledges a number of changes and new demands on Australian education.
… rapid and continuing advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) are changing the ways people share, use, develop and process information and technology. In this digital age, young people need to be highly skilled in the use of ICT. While schools already employ these technologies in learning, there is a need to increase their effectiveness significantly over the next decade.
This statement recognises that ICT is used extensively in schools, and also highlights accelerating changes in ICTs. The second of the two goals in the declaration is that all young Australians become successful learners, confident and creative individuals, and active and informed citizens ( Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA), 2008). Successful learners have the essential skills in literacy and numeracy and are creative and productive users of technology, especially ICT, as a foundation for success in all learning areas. (MCEETYA, 2008) The explicit reference to ICT as an essential skill for successful learning raises many questions about what research has already identified in relation to how ICTs improve learning.
This perspective on Australian education reflects the diverse use of modern ICT in many countries. A recent oECD study reports that, in all oECD countries:
In schools it is now common to see ICT being used by students to write essays, find information for projects and assignments, compose music, share ideas with students in other schools, conduct simulations, build databases, create works of art and do detailed architectural drawings. (oECD, 2005b)
for them to use ICT to be of less importance than do sector personnel. Policies and syllabuses for ICT are seen as a stronger influence by teachers than by principals and sector personnel.
The new demands made by ICT have prompted discussion: … it’s the relatively new uses of the internet and worldwide web that are stimulating new demands and expectations in education. (White, 2008a) There is also clear recognition of the need for research about questions of the impact of ICT on learning and education:
The internet and www have caused considerable changes to the ways we access and use information as well as communicate that are having a continuing impact on education. The sheer richness of media and the diversity of processes that can be applied to those media mean that we need research into their effects on learning. (White, 2008b)
Research addressing this topic takes many forms, including large-scale investigations of the range of ICT literacy amongst students, reports from schools and classrooms about students’ responses to new teaching practices integrating a range of ICTs and students’ responses to these approaches, as well as meta-analyses of rigorous research seeking to determine the impact of ICTs on learning. In different ways, all of this research explores key questions about the impact of ICT on learning.
Within Australia and New Zealand, a survey-based evaluation of online curriculum materials produced by The Le@rning Federation has provided insights into the perceptions of teachers, school leaders and sector personnel about the uses and benefits of information and communication technologies in classrooms and the factors that encourage its classroom use. This evaluation has found a generally low adoption of ICT, due to various factors, including a lack of alignment between curriculum, pedagogy, assessment of students’ performance, and high stakes testing. (Freebody, P., Reimann, P. & Tiu, A., 2008a)
The findings of the evaluation survey of The Le@rning Federation’s (TLF) online curriculum materials (Freebody, P., Reimann, P. & Tiu, A., 2008b) identified a number of factors concerning the use of online curriculum material in the current school context, including, for example:
◗ Teachers vary considerably in their reported rates of familiarity and professional development experiences with TLF materials, and report low levels of professional development, although higher than reported in earlier surveys. ◗ The curriculum areas with the highest use of TLF materials are mathematics, English/literacy and science. Studies of Society and the Environment and cross-curricular integrated studies now have higher reported rates of use than those reported in earlier studies. ◗ Teachers who use TLF materials continue to report very favourably on their value for students’ learning and engagement. ◗ In estimating the importance of a range of factors that enable teachers to adopt new digital/online technologies in their teaching, teachers place less emphasis on those related to ease of use and support in ICT than do school leaders and sector personnel. Teachers also view pressure from outside sources.
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This paper was prepared for the Australian Council for Computers in Education and represents the views of that Council and its affiliates: CEGSA, ECAWA, ICTENSW, ICTEV, ITEANT, QSITE, TASITE, and The Australian Computer Society. It also represents the views of VITTA. Consultation ACCE would like to thank its member associations: CEGACT, CEGSA, ECAWA, ICTENSW, ICTEV, ITEANT, QSITE, TASITE, and The Australian Computer Society for their contribution to this paper. It also acknowledges the contribution of VITTA (The Victorian Information Technology Teachers’ Association). The position represented here is truly a national teachers’ association position on a very important issue. ACCE would like to recognise the committee that coordinated the consultation and developed the paper on behalf of ACCE: Dr Nicholas Reynolds (chair), Paula Christophersen, Phil Callil and Helen Otway.
The Melbourne Declaration recognises the importance of ICT as being ‘central to Australia’s skilled economy (requiring) crucial pathways to post-‐school success’ (MCEETYA, 2008). It specifies Information and Communication Technology and Design and Technology as one of the eight learning areas of the Australian curriculum. The Melbourne Declaration makes particular mention of the role of ICT in supporting learning in all curriculum areas. The Australian Curriculum as presented by ACARA acknowledges the interdisciplinary role of ICT by defining its role as a General Capability (GC) and its specific role as a discipline by placing Information and Communication Technology into the ICT and Design and Technology Learning Area. This position paper argues that the current articulation of ICT as both a GC and as part of the so called ‘Technologies’ Learning Area does not support the development of digital literacy, does not provide enough rich ICT use to develop essential pathways and does not support the creation of a digitally productive, knowledge based society. This paper argues that ICT needs to be its own learning area, either within the framework of the ICT and Design and Technology Learning Area, or as a new area. This notion is not alien to the spirit of the Melbourne Declaration. In that document the term ‘Humanities and social sciences (including history, geography, economics, business, civics and citizenship)’ is used to define one Learning Area, yet in the first phase of the Australian Curriculum, History is presented as a standalone Learning Area, as is Geography, a phase two learning area. As a learning area, work is just beginning on determining ICT’s conceptual ‘home’ and its content. In December 2010, a group of experts representing areas (‘contexts’) such as ICT, design and technology, systems engineering, primary industries, food and technology and textiles met at ACARA to discuss what in essence comprises a technologies learning area. ACCE was represented at that meeting. One key issue raised at the meeting was the role of the ‘Design Process Framework’ in defining what constitutes Technology education. At that meeting significant emphasis was placed on the Technology Education Network’s 2010 draft position paper (TEN 2010). The design process framework is the underlying theoretical framework in that document and is now guiding curriculum development for ACARA in the ICT and Design and Technology Learning Area. That paper, while recognising that ICT is part of a broad learning area, devalues the importance of ICT by referring to the learning area as the ‘Technologies’ learning area, rather than as Information and Communication Technologies and Design and Technology.
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