There are several articles which submit to fulfil assignment of Trend in ELT 2013 Session II (8 May 2013)

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English Department and Faculty of teacher Training and Education

Bung Hatta University Padang

Indonesia

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Articles Trend In ELT 2013

Posted: March 27, 2013 in Uncategorized

There are several articles which submit to fulfil assignment of Trend in ELT 2013

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English Department and Faculty of teacher Training and Education

Bung Hatta University Padang

Indonesia

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Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the  University of Maryland, College Park, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2006

Acknowledgements

My four-year residency at the University of Maryland has made me realize
that one would never be able to reach the end point of the Ph.D program without
getting tremendous help, support and encouragement from so many individuals. I was
truly blessed indeed to have such a wonderful circle of support. Now it is time for me
to express my deepest appreciation to all of those who helped me, although saying
“thank you” would be never enough.
First, my most sincere gratitude goes to Dr. Rebecca Oxford, my chair and
advisor, who has watched me grow professionally and intellectually from the very
first day of my doctoral program. Without her continued support and guidance,
nothing would have been possible.
I would also like to give my deepest thanks to all my committee members, Dr.
Margaret Ann Kassen for sharing her expertise in foreign language teaching through
technology and introducing Horizon Wimba, Dr. Roberta Lavine for offering
insightful comments on my proposal and introducing “task-based language teaching”
to me, Dr. Joseph McCaleb for graciously accepting my last-minute invitation, and Dr.
Denis Sullivan for encouraging me for the past two years.
I am infinitely grateful to Yaru Meng for all her support, generosity, and
friendship. Thank you so much for entering my life in the nick of time, Yaru!
I can’t thank enough the seven teachers, Chengbing Cheng, Yajun Zhao,
Jiaguang Pang, Xiaoyan Li, Xiaoying Zhao, Xiaoqian Yan, and Dongmei Ge, for
their generous and immediate help. I owe them many thanks. I also thank Lingmin
(Cathy) Gong for her highly efficient assistance. Finally,no one deserves more thanks
than 591 students participating in this study. I was so impressed by their brilliant
answers.
I would say a big “thank you” to three women who extended their helping
hands to me while I was suffering for this dissertation, Heather Gorman for her
editing work, Ru Lu for her statistical consulting, and Pamela Hickey for editing
dissertation and shouting “Hi” from Macedonia.
I thank Donna Bain-Butler, Gloria Park, Soo Jung Suh, Chengbin Yin, and
Ying Zhang for always cheering me up, and all EDCI 798 members for the fall
semester, 2005 for the charm bracelet that I will keep forever!
Finally, I am eternally indebted to my parents for sending their wholehearted
support all these years from a distance. Also, I wish to thank my grandparents, who
place great value on scholarship, for always being proud of me.

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PREFACE

This Working Paper brings together evidence on the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on education and training in Europe. It reviews 20 studies and/or reports that provide empirical accounts of the significance of ICT for learning (education and training). It has been prepared by IPTS (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies),1 on the request of DG Education and Culture, Directorate A (Lifelong Learning: horizontal Lisbon policy issues and international affairs), in particular Unit A2 (Lifelong learning: innovation and creativity) to support its work on the use of ICT to support innovation and lifelong learning for all.
This work is part of an on-going collaboration between IPTS and DG EAC Directorate A that started at the end of 2005. Under this collaboration, IPTS will contribute to the strategic policy work of DG EAC, by conducting focused techno-economic research and prospective analyses in domains relevant to Directorate A.
Work on the future of learning and the role of ICT is being carried out by the IS Unit at IPTS as part of a research action on eApplications. This action supports the formulation of policies for the development of the Information Society in the areas of governance, health, business, learning and social inclusion. The work links the monitoring and forecasting of ICT developments with socio-economic impact analysis of selected application areas, identifies relevant bottlenecks and suggests policy options for ICT. The aim is to support the overall formulation and implementation of appropriate Information Society policies contributing to a socially inclusive and sustainable society – one of the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy.

1. Introduction

It is difficult and maybe even impossible to imagine future learning environments that are not supported, in one way or another, by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). When looking at the current widespread diffusion and use of ICT in modern societies, especially by the young – the so-called digital generation – then it should be clear that ICT will affect the complete learning process today and in the future. Both the Member States and the European Union have dedicated effort and resources to the promotion and implementation of ICT in education and training; and they continue to do so (e.g. the EU eLearning Programme2). It has also been acknowledged by the European Council held in Lisbon on 23 and 24 March 2000 that there is an urgent need to adapt European education and training systems according to the requirements of a knowledge-based society.

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RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN

Satuan Pendidikan      : SMA 9 Padang

Mata Pelajaran              : Bahasa Inggris

Kelas / Semester          : XI / II

Program / Jurursan    : IPA / IPS

Jumlah Pertemuan      : 1 x Pertemuan

Standar Kompetensi

Kompetensi Dasar

Listening

Memahami makna dalam teks fungsional pendek dan monolog berbentuk spoof dalam konteks kehidupan sehari – hari.

Merespon makna dalam teks monolog yang menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari – hari dalam teks berbentuk spoof.

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Successful uses of ICT in School

Successful learners have the essential skills in literacy and numeracy and are creative and productive users of technology, especially ICT, as a foundation for success in all  learning areas.

The preamble to the 2008 Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians (MCEETYA, 2008) acknowledges a number of changes and new demands on Australian education.
… rapid and continuing advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) are changing the ways people share, use, develop and process information and technology. In this digital age, young people need to be highly skilled in the use of ICT. While schools already employ these technologies in learning, there is a need to increase their effectiveness significantly over the next decade.
This statement recognises that ICT is used extensively in schools, and also highlights accelerating changes in ICTs. The second of the two goals in the declaration is that all young Australians become successful learners, confident and creative individuals, and active and informed citizens ( Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA), 2008). Successful learners have the essential skills in literacy and numeracy and are creative and productive users of technology, especially ICT, as a foundation for success in all learning areas. (MCEETYA, 2008) The explicit reference to ICT as an essential skill for successful learning raises many questions about what research has already identified in relation to how ICTs improve learning.
This perspective on Australian education reflects the diverse use of modern ICT in many countries. A recent oECD study reports that, in all oECD countries:
In schools it is now common to see ICT being used by students to write essays, find information for projects and assignments, compose music, share ideas with students in other schools, conduct simulations, build databases, create works of art and do detailed architectural drawings. (oECD, 2005b)
3
for them to use ICT to be of less importance than do sector personnel. Policies and syllabuses for ICT are seen as a stronger influence by teachers than by principals and sector personnel.
The new demands made by ICT have prompted discussion: … it’s the relatively new uses of the internet and worldwide web that are stimulating new demands and expectations in education. (White, 2008a) There is also clear recognition of the need for research about questions of the impact of ICT on learning and education:
The internet and www have caused considerable changes to the ways we access and use information as well as communicate that are having a continuing impact on education. The sheer richness of media and the diversity of processes that can be applied to those media mean that we need research into their effects on learning. (White, 2008b)
Research addressing this topic takes many forms, including large-scale investigations of the range of ICT literacy amongst students, reports from schools and classrooms about students’ responses to new teaching practices integrating a range of ICTs and students’ responses to these approaches, as well as meta-analyses of rigorous research seeking to determine the impact of ICTs on learning. In different ways, all of this research explores key questions about the impact of ICT on learning.
Within Australia and New Zealand, a survey-based evaluation of online curriculum materials produced by The Le@rning Federation has provided insights into the perceptions of teachers, school leaders and sector personnel about the uses and benefits of information and communication technologies in classrooms and the factors that encourage its classroom use. This evaluation has found a generally low adoption of ICT, due to various factors, including a lack of alignment between curriculum, pedagogy, assessment of students’ performance, and high stakes testing. (Freebody, P., Reimann, P. & Tiu, A., 2008a)
The findings of the evaluation survey of The Le@rning Federation’s (TLF) online curriculum materials (Freebody, P., Reimann, P. & Tiu, A., 2008b) identified a number of factors concerning the use of online curriculum material in the current school context, including, for example:
◗ Teachers vary considerably in their reported rates of familiarity and professional development experiences with TLF materials, and report low levels of professional development, although higher than reported in earlier surveys. ◗ The curriculum areas with the highest use of TLF materials are mathematics, English/literacy and science. Studies of Society and the Environment and cross-curricular integrated studies now have higher reported rates of use than those reported in earlier studies. ◗ Teachers who use TLF materials continue to report very favourably on their value for students’ learning and engagement. ◗ In estimating the importance of a range of factors that enable teachers to adopt new digital/online technologies in their teaching, teachers place less emphasis on those related to ease of use and support in ICT than do school leaders and sector personnel. Teachers also view pressure from outside sources.

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This  paper  was  prepared  for  the  Australian  Council  for  Computers  in  Education  and  represents  the   views  of  that  Council  and  its  affiliates:  CEGSA,  ECAWA,  ICTENSW,  ICTEV,  ITEANT,  QSITE,  TASITE,  and   The  Australian  Computer  Society.  It  also  represents  the  views  of  VITTA.     Consultation     ACCE  would  like  to  thank  its  member  associations:  CEGACT,  CEGSA,  ECAWA,  ICTENSW,  ICTEV,  ITEANT,   QSITE,  TASITE,  and  The  Australian  Computer  Society  for  their  contribution  to  this  paper.  It  also   acknowledges  the  contribution  of  VITTA  (The  Victorian   Information   Technology  Teachers’   Association).    The  position  represented  here  is  truly  a  national  teachers’  association  position  on  a  very   important  issue.     ACCE  would  like  to  recognise  the  committee  that  coordinated  the  consultation  and  developed  the   paper  on  behalf  of  ACCE:    Dr  Nicholas  Reynolds  (chair),  Paula  Christophersen,  Phil  Callil  and  Helen   Otway.

Current  position

The  Melbourne  Declaration  recognises  the  importance  of  ICT  as  being  ‘central  to  Australia’s  skilled   economy  (requiring)  crucial  pathways  to  post-­‐school  success’  (MCEETYA,  2008).  It  specifies   Information  and  Communication  Technology  and  Design  and  Technology  as  one  of  the  eight  learning   areas  of  the  Australian  curriculum.  The  Melbourne  Declaration  makes  particular  mention  of  the  role   of  ICT  in  supporting  learning  in  all  curriculum  areas.     The  Australian  Curriculum  as  presented  by  ACARA  acknowledges  the  interdisciplinary  role  of  ICT  by   defining  its  role  as  a  General  Capability  (GC)  and  its  specific  role  as  a  discipline  by  placing   Information  and  Communication  Technology  into  the  ICT  and  Design  and  Technology  Learning  Area.   This  position  paper  argues  that  the  current  articulation  of  ICT  as  both  a  GC  and  as  part  of  the  so   called  ‘Technologies’  Learning  Area  does  not  support  the  development  of  digital  literacy,  does  not   provide  enough  rich  ICT  use  to  develop  essential  pathways  and  does  not  support  the  creation  of  a   digitally  productive,  knowledge  based  society.     This  paper  argues  that  ICT  needs  to  be  its  own  learning  area,  either  within  the  framework  of  the  ICT   and  Design  and  Technology  Learning  Area,  or  as  a  new  area.  This  notion  is  not  alien  to  the  spirit  of   the  Melbourne  Declaration.  In  that  document  the  term  ‘Humanities  and  social  sciences  (including   history,  geography,  economics,  business,  civics  and  citizenship)’  is  used  to  define  one  Learning  Area,   yet  in  the  first  phase  of  the  Australian  Curriculum,  History  is  presented  as  a  standalone  Learning   Area,  as  is  Geography,  a  phase  two  learning  area.     As  a  learning  area,  work  is  just  beginning  on  determining  ICT’s  conceptual  ‘home’  and  its  content.  In   December  2010,  a  group  of  experts  representing  areas  (‘contexts’)  such  as  ICT,  design  and   technology,  systems  engineering,  primary  industries,  food  and  technology  and  textiles  met  at  ACARA   to  discuss  what  in  essence  comprises  a  technologies  learning  area.  ACCE  was  represented  at  that   meeting.  One  key  issue  raised  at  the  meeting  was  the  role  of  the  ‘Design  Process  Framework’  in   defining  what  constitutes  Technology  education.  At  that  meeting  significant  emphasis  was  placed  on   the  Technology  Education  Network’s  2010  draft  position  paper  (TEN  2010).  The  design  process   framework  is  the  underlying  theoretical  framework  in  that  document  and  is  now  guiding  curriculum   development  for  ACARA  in  the  ICT  and  Design  and  Technology  Learning  Area.  That  paper,  while   recognising  that  ICT  is  part  of  a  broad  learning  area,  devalues  the  importance  of  ICT  by  referring  to  the  learning  area  as  the  ‘Technologies’  learning  area,  rather  than  as  Information  and  Communication   Technologies  and  Design  and  Technology.

 

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